Enhance Sanitation By Testing for ATP + ADP + AMP
Even today’s most effective methods for cleaning of facilities: sanitizing, disinfecting and sterilization, still leave behind microbial contamination. If left unchecked, these microbes can grow to levels harmful enough to cause serious illness to consumers.
So why don’t our most commonly used cleaning methods eliminate pathogens completely?
Organic matter can interfere with the antimicrobial activity of disinfectants
According to a 2019 paper published by the Kikkoman Biochemifa Company in Japan, the authors state that this interference occurs because of “a chemical reaction between the germicide and the organic matter, resulting in a complex that is less germicidal, reducing the active germicide available for disinfection/sterilization or totally eliminating germicidal activity.”
Due to this chemical reaction, the organic material (potential contamination) protects microorganisms from germicides by acting as a physical barrier.
The contamination, in the form of biofilms or microbial residue, allows pathogens to grow to the level of causing serious human illnesses. It cannot be detected by visual inspection, underscoring the need for monitoring tests that provide quick, accurate results, and are easy to use.
ATP Monitoring Tests for Sanitation
The food, beverage, and healthcare industries are few of the many industries that regularly use ATP hygiene monitoring tests to accurately detect contamination, and as a way of verifying and qualifying the sanitation procedures in place.
ATP monitoring tests
ATP monitoring tests look for presence of ATP on surfaces, which would indicate ineffective cleaning and presence of contamination (organic debris, bacteria, etc.).
These tests also quantify how contaminated a sample is by generating a number (often within minutes if not seconds) that corresponds to the number of harmful bacteria (pathogens) in the sample. These tests thus identify the level of contamination, and are effective because they are both easy to use, and are effective detectors of environmental contamination.
The Luminometer include colony counters that range from hand held manual models to fully automated with many features. From dilution bottles and related supplies to loops and spreaders, we have the testing supplies you need for your laboratory or testing facility. Our assortment of petri dishes and accessories will meet most of your testing needs while our rapid testing method supplies offers you selection, convenience, and value.
Why aren’t ATP monitoring tests sufficient?
Despite its popularity for hygiene monitoring, ATP tests do not give the full picture.
The unstable nature of ATP molecules causes them to decompose into adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which further decomposes into adenosine monophosphate (AMP).
Additionally, heat, acids, and enzymes also degrade ATP to ADP and AMP. Other cells use the energy released through this hydrolysis process. Because ADP and AMP have reduced energy, they are detected at limits of lower magnitude than ATP.
ATP + ADP + AMP System: A Contamination Detector for Environmental Monitoring
The Kikkoman Biochemifa Company highlights the need for testing not just ATP but also ADP and AMP to detect contamination and thus evaluate hygiene monitoring and sanitation systems in place. Standard ATP monitoring tests in the market cannot detect ADP and AMP and often return false negatives as a result.
Just ATP Testing Can Lead to False Negatives
In their white paper, the company states:
“If the ATP in food residues or biofilm has degraded, conventional ATP tests that indicate ATP levels alone can fail to be a true sanitation indicator and can show false negatives.”
“The false negatives mean that ATP-only tests will indicate no contamination because they do not look for presence of ADP and AMP, whose detection requires lower levels than ATP. ”
Detect ATP, ADP, and AMP With a Single Swab with A3
Kikkoman’s A3 Sanitation System is a novel hygiene monitoring system that measures the total adenylate count: ATP + ADP + AMP, allowing a highly accurate determination of contamination on surfaces.
Similar to the functionality of standard tests, the A3 sanitation system requires users to swab the surface. However, because the A3 sanitation system includes patented technology for higher sensitivity, the results, displayed within ten seconds, are accurate indicators of the presence of contamination and its levels.
Low Limit Detection Swab Testing for Sanitation
Kikkoman’s A3 technology works using advanced enzyme chemistry that significantly increases the sensitivity of swab testing. It does so by using two additional enzymatic reactions to convert ADP and AMP back to ATP, thereby detecting an accurate amount of contamination.
An independent study recently confirmed A3’s superior sensitivity for effective hygiene monitoring
Food Safety Net Services performed an independent evaluation study of the A3 Sanitation System in comparison to three leading, competitive ATP products. The evaluation revealed Kikkoman’s technology to have higher detection of ATP, ADP, and AMP.
Ultra sensitive detection of food and micro-biological residues in 10 seconds with wireless connection
1. AOAC approved
2. Cost effective sanitation monitoring
3. Provides real-time feedback
4. Facilitates long-term data analysis
5. Optimizes and verifies that cleaning procedures are working
6. Cloud data management
7. Provides rapid detection and response to problems
8. On-site hygiene monitoring tool
Kikkoman’s A3 Sanitation System includes Lumitester Smart, a safe, easy to use product designed for ATP swab testing. Lumitester Smart offers high sensitivity detection and less connection capabilities, allowing for better hygiene monitoring through accurate detection of food residues.
1. The product has consistent results and higher sensitivity because it detects not only ATP but also ADP and AMP.
2. Its easy to use features allow for fast, simple, safe, precise testing with results available in as less as 10 seconds.
3. The two additional enzymatic reactions compared to conventional ATP tests provide Kikkoman’s A3 technology super detection capability to uncover all levels of contaminants.
Ensure Sanitation for Food Samples With A3 Sanitation System
Contamination affects food samples by changing the odor and taste, which is why numerous food processors utilize ATP monitoring tests to make sure their sanitation systems are effective.
Kikkoman’s A3 technology offers higher sensitivity of detection of ATP, ADP, and AMP in foods. This is important because it allows food processors to ensure common allergens are detected, which would otherwise not be possible.
Residues that would otherwise contaminate food products are also detected in a timely and accurate manner, allowing for better hygiene monitoring.
For example, in seafood, Kikkoman’s A3 technology showed more than two orders of magnitude greater sensitivity compared to standard ATP tests in the market.
Similar was the case with other types of foods, as seen in the picture below.
A3: A Better Indicator of Sanitation Processes of Stainless Steel
Kikkoman highlights A3 Sanitation System’s low-level detection limits on hard surfaces.
Six stainless steel coupons were exposed to three kinds of raw meats, the coupons were washed with cold water, hot water, and using a sponge with detergent and rinsed.
The company states that ATP and A3 assays were carried out after every rinse (3 times in total).
For ATP tests in the market, 200 RLU was achieved after the first two steps. However, A3 monitoring tests indicated that the number was higher than 200 RLU, which means just rinsing stainless steel with cold and hot water is not sufficient to remove contamination.
Conventional ATP tests would have indicated that the product or surface meets sanitation requirements, but effective sanitation would not have been achieved.
“This is significant as many food processing facilities will use 200 RLU as a typical pass/fail criterion,” the authors state in the report.
A3 for testing cleanliness levels of water and other liquid samples
In addition to food and hard surface testing, the LuciPac A3 Water monitoring kit tests water cleanliness using bioluminescence techniques (firefly luciferase). The A3 Water Monitoring Kit contains both a test reagent and the sampling stick that will be used for testing samples of water and other liquids for hygiene monitoring.
ATP monitoring is a popular method to identify contamination in food and on hard surfaces. By identifying the amount of ATP present in a sample, the level of contamination is determined. However, since ATP is unstable and decomposes to ADP and AMP, conventional ATP tests cannot accurately detect ADP and AMP.
Kikkoman’s A3 technology offers more effective detection of food residues, and better hygiene monitoring.
The A3 environmental monitoring device detects not only ATP, but also ADP and AMP using two additional enzymatic reactions. In these, ADP and AMP are converted back to ATP, allowing for accurate detection of contamination.
A3 offers an easy, effective, and accurate way to determine contamination and conduct comprehensive hygiene monitoring in facilities.
How do ATP tests work?
ATP tests look for the presence of ATP molecules in the swabbed sample. Kikkoman’s A3 sanitation system works on the principle of firefly luciferase, which can produce light using luciferin and ATP.
Since the amount of light detected by a luminometer is generally proportional to the amount of ATP, and in turn, contamination, can be quantified.
How do I make sure that I am swabbing correctly?
Allow the swab to come to room temperature before swabbing. Apply gentle pressure while swabbing the surface but please take care not to break the swab. For a detailed video and how-to, please visit this video.
How long does the A3 system take to detect contamination?
The A3 system offers superior sensitivity for hygiene monitoring because it takes only 10 seconds to detect contamination.
Why should I test for ATP, ADP, and AMP?
ATP degrades to ADP and AMP through hydrolysis, which means that contamination that is still present on surfaces at lower detection levels would be hard to identify using conventional tests.
Testing for ATP, ADP, and AMP offers superior sensitivity and more effective hygiene monitoring. Kikkoman’s A3 detectors are proven to offer higher sensitivity when compared to conventional ATP tests.
How do I use Lumitester Start?
Please refer to this video to get started.